The only thing better than finding and fixing problems quickly is not having problems at all. While many issues are caused by bugs in code, applications with thousands of hosts frequently run into problems with flaky hosts or transient connectivity. These issues have little to do with the application logic. To address these types of problems, Envoy has two strategies for identifying failing infrastructure: Health Checking (active monitoring) and Outlier Detection (passive monitoring).
A healthy host is one that can respond positively to a request. Envoy can be configured to actively test hosts with Health Checking, and it is defined on a per-cluster (i.e. service) basis. The simplest health check, or L3/L4 check, just ensures each endpoint (i.e. port on a host or container) is available, and it doesn’t depend on any application logic. Because the IP and port are already specified as part of the endpoint, setting up a Health Check doesn’t even require service-specific information.
A simple static YAML configuration may look like this:
health_checks: - timeout: 1s interval: 60s interval_jitter: 1s unhealthy_threshold: 3 healthy_threshold: 3 tcp_health_check: send: "" receive: 
Envoy also knows about HTTP, gRPC, and Redis protocols. For example, to test
for a non-5xx response, replace
which defines the URL to test:
host: "servicehost" path: "/health" service_name: "authentication"
With this strategy, you can implement logic for services that have a custom definition of “up”. While it’s easy to imagine writing comprehensive health checks that look for all possible problems with a host, the reality is that the check will never be full-fidelity. No matter how complex the active check is, there will be scenarios where it returns “success” and the host is failing. To figure out if a host is healthy enough to take traffic, it’s best to combine health checking with outlier detection.
Unlike active health checking, Outlier Detection —sometimes called passive health checking—uses the responses from real requests to determine whether an endpoint is healthy. Once an endpoint is removed, Envoy uses a time-out based approach for re-insertion, where unhealthy hosts are re-added to the cluster after a configurable interval. Each subsequent removal increases the interval, so a persistently unhealthy endpoint does as little damage as possible to user traffic.
Like health checks, outlier detection is configured per-cluster. This configuration removes a host for 30 seconds when it returns 3 consecutive 5xx errors:
consecutive_5xx: "3" base_ejection_time: "30s"
When enabling outlier detection on a new service, it can help to start with a less stringent set of rules. A good place to start is to only eject hosts with gateway connectivity errors (HTTP 503), and only eject them 10% of the time. By ramping up the enforcement rate, you can avoid kicking a bunch of hosts out of a service for being flaky, which would potentially create more problems than it would solve:
consecutive_gateway_failure: "3" base_ejection_time: "30s" enforcing_consecutive_gateway_failure: "10"
On the other end of the spectrum, high-traffic, stable services can use statistics to eject hosts that are abnormally error-prone. This configuration would eject any endpoint whose error rate is more than 1 standard deviation below the average for the cluster. Note that this requires sustained traffic: the statistics are evaluated every 10 seconds, and the algorithm isn’t run for any host with fewer than 500 requests / 10 seconds.
interval: "10s" base_ejection_time: "30s" success_rate_minimum_hosts: "10" success_rate_request_volume: "500" success_rate_stdev_factor: "1000" # divided by 1000 to get a double
In all cases, the endpoints removed do not exceed the
the cluster, and they are re-inserted after their timeout
base_ejection_time * number of ejections) expires.
Health checking is one of the easiest ways to take advantage of Envoy’s ability to make your services more reliable—and you don't even have to write any new code. Remember that health checks are only for host health, and not service health. The goal is to auto-heal your service, not detect and fix bad code.
To build a practical picture of host health, it’s best to combine both active and passive health checking. At scale, passive checks are more robust, so lean on them as the primary check. A good general strategy is to reject any endpoint with five 5xx responses in a row (outlier detection), or one that Envoy can’t proactively connect to (health checking). As mentioned above, if your service has enough traffic for it, statistical outlier detection is far more robust than simple consecutive errors.
The above approach should work for most services, and it doesn’t require any new code. Resist the urge to add complex active health checking, as these checks will never be perfect. That said, there are three scenarios where adding a more complex health check will likely improve your results:
If your service does meaningful initialization work that it performs after it starts taking traffic, an active health check can prevent a spike in errors when new hosts come online. In most cases, services with this behavior were simply never written to be immediately available and correct. Ideally, you’d fix the service to finish its initialization before serving traffic, but if that’s not possible, adding a health check can mitigate these transient errors.
More broadly, if your system has a custom definition of health that isn’t easily derived from response data, an active health check can help. For instance, Cassandra auto-balances its data across all available hosts, so you could mark hosts under particularly heavy replication load unavailable for read requests.
Finally, if the amount of traffic is low but important, an active health check can give you early warning that a host is misbehaving before a user connects. A service that updates payment information may only have a handful of requests a day, but because it has the possibility to charge a customer’s credit card, it’s difficult to use other resilience strategies like retries. Health checking makes sure all endpoints can get the necessary DB connections at all times, marking unreliable nodes as down before they make third-party calls.
Logging ejections from the cluster will help you tune any rules you put in place and prevent hosts from flapping in and out of the cluster.
For more details, see: